Mulcahy Memorial

The first series of the Mulcahy Memorial was always held around the turn of the year, sometimes all in December, sometimes all in January and sometimes straddling the Old and New Year. Where known the exact dates are given, but the years given below for the first series always assume the event was played in January. The first series ended in 1994, but the tournament was revived in 2003.

On its revival the Mulcahy was no longer held over its traditional Christmas holiday period setting; in 2003 the dates were in mid-December, while the following seasons to 2011-2012 the tournament moved forward a month to mid-January. There was therefore no tournament in the 2004 calendar year.

In season 2012-13, the event returned to its roots occupying a time slot in the post-Christmas/New Year period and I have again adopted the first series dating convention.

There is a very good history of the Mulcahy Cup, written by Pat Twomey at the Cork CC website

1969 Maurice Kennefick

3-6 January 1969

1. Maurice Kennefick 5.5/6
2. John Murray 5.0
3=6. Michael Roberts, Peter O’Kane, Jim Cummins, Art Coldrick 4.5 (41 players)

1970 John Moles

2-5 January 1970

1. John Moles 5.5/6
2=5. John Murray, Tom Ireton, Colm Quigley, S. Saverymuttu (ENG) 4.5

1971 John Murray

1972 David Cox

31 December 1971-3 January 1972

1=2. David Cox, John Kennedy 5.0/6 (Cox awarded title on tie-break)
3=6. M. Kennefick, S. Galligan, J. Savage, P O Briain 4.0
7=12. M. Poppin, M. Coveney, J. Killane, G. Barnwell, A. Spillane, D. Fanning 3.5

1973 Stephen Meyler

1. S. Meyler 5.0
2=4. C. Quigley, C. Egan, P. O’Brien 4.5
(30 players)

1974 Bernard Kernan

1975 Ian Sinclair

7th E.N. Mulcahy Memorial
27-30 December 1974

1. Ian Sinclair 5.5/6
2. Bernard Kernan 5.0
3=4. E. O’Sullivan, D. Healy 4.5
5=11. J. O’Brien, Paul Wallace, S. Galligan, J. Noone, H. Healy, Maurice Kennefick, J. Brennan 4.0
12=21. Ray Devenney, P. Muldoon, John Kennedy, L. Penny, J. Short, P. Dillon, R. Nolan, M. O’Briain, Philip Short, G. Casey 3.5
22=27. M. Matthews, J. Moroney, L. Roche, E. O’Connor, Anthony McCarthy, J. Cahill 3.0
28=33. David Blair, P. McCarthy, J. Sheehan, W. Fitzgibbon, P. Lynch, John Gibson 2.5
34=37. T. Collins, R. Flynn, S. Moroney, J. Alfred 2.0
38=41.Maurice Coveney, D. Hinds, S. Clarke, T. Myers 1.5
42=45. J. Scanlon, Patrick Byrne, M. O’Shea, T O’Sullivan 1.0
46. T. Shorten 0.5

1976 Bernard Kernan

Commenced 27 December 1975

1. B. Kernan, 5.5/6
2=3. C. Quigley, I. Sinclair 5.0
4=8. M. Kennfick, P. McCarthy, A. McCarthy, P. Short, L.E. Brady

1977 Bernard Kernan, Stephen Swanson

9th E.N. Mulcahy Memorial
31 December 1976- 3 January 1977

1=2. Bernard Kernan, Stephen Swanson 5.5/6
3=4. Paul Wallace, Tim Harding 5.0
5=9. Conor Barrington, Maurice Kennefick, J..G. Kennedy, Colm Quigley, P. McCarthy 4.5
(Record entry of 70 players)

1978 David Dunne

10th Mulcahy Memorial
30 December 1977 – 2 January 1978

[Scores immediately below from Sunday Independent]
1. David Dunne 5.5/6
2=7. Paul Henry, Paul Delaney, John Gibson, Orison Carlile, Maurice Kennefick, Pat Carton 5.0
[ICU Yearbook 1977-78 gives instead:
2=5. Paul Henry, Paul Delaney, John Gibson, C. Quigley (no score given)]

1979 Tim Harding

11th E.N. Mulcahy Memorial
29 December 1978-1 January 1979

1=5. T. Doyle, R. Devenney, M. Kennefick, T. Harding, P. Wallace 5.0/6 (Harding won on tie-break)

1980 Paul Delaney

12th Mulcahy Memorial
sponsored by the Bank of Ireland
Lee Maltings UCC
28-31 December 1979

1=5. Paul Delaney, John Murray, Tony Doyle, Kevin James, Anthony McCarthy 5.0/6 (Delaney won trophy on tie-break)
6=10. Philip Short, Michael Littleton, Colm Barry, Joe Noone, Sean McInerney
(74 players)

1981 Conor O’Shaughnessy

New Year weekend

1=6. Paul Delaney, Tony Doyle, Philip Short, Anthony McCarthy, Conor O’Shaughnessy (winner on tie-break), John Keenan

1982 Anthony McCarthy

14th Mulcahy Memorial
31 December 1981-3 January 1982

1=2. Anthony McCarthy (winner on tie-break), Tony Doyle 5.5/6
3=4. Killian Hynes, Stefan Gower [USA] 5.0
5=9. Joe Noone, J. Noonan, April Cronin, Michael O’Brien, Phillip Short 4.5
(77 players)

1983 Glenn Flear

15th Mulcahy Memorial
31 December 1982-3 January 1983

1. IM Glenn Flear 6.0/6
2=5. Philip Short, Guy Lyons, Pat McMahon, Eddie O’Reilly 5.0
6=12. Anne Delaney, Willie Lyons, Dave Smith, Charlie Daly, Christy Russell, Conor O’Shaughnessy, Pat Carton 4.5
(record entry of 100 players)

1984 Philip Short

16th Mulcahy Memorial
New Year weekend

1. Philip Short 5.5/6
2=5. K. Arkell (Eng), (R.) Britton (Eng), C. Barry, C. O’Shaughnessy 5.0
6=9. C. Russell, G. McElligott, P. Carton, M. Kennedy 4.0
(82 players)

1985 Keith Arkell, Mark Orr, Pat Carton

17th Mulcahy Memorial
28-31 December 1984

1=3. K. Arkell (Eng), M. Orr, P. Carton 5.5/6
[no indication found as to any winner on tie-break. Cork CC website gives all three as winners]
4=8. P. O’Donovan, J. Gallagher (Eng), E. O’Reilly, D. Dunne, T. Milligan (Sco) 5.0
9=. i.a. M. O’Brien, M. Kennedy, P. Short , April Cronin  4.5
(record entry of 106 players)

1986 Keith Arkell, Michael O’Brien, Mark Hebden

27-30 December 1985

1=3. IM Keith Arkell, Michael O’Brien, IM Mark Hebden 5.5/6
4=5. E. Curtin, E. O’Reilly 5.0
6= 10. John Delaney, B. Lyons, E. O’Connor, H. Scarry, Philip Hegarty 4.5
(WIM Susan Walker 4.0)

1987 Susan Arkell

19th Mulcahy Memorial
27-30 December 1986

1. Susan Arkell 5.5/6
2=4. C. Barry, Keith Arkell, E. McMahon 5.0
5=7. Philip Short, E. O’Reilly, Daire McMahon 4.5
(71 competitors)

1988 Kilian Hynes

20th Mulcahy Memorial
31 December 1987-3January 1988

1. Kilian Hynes 5.5/6
2=5. Colm Barry, Tom Clarke, David Houston, John Buckley 5.0
6=11. Philip Short, Colm Daly, Keith Allen, Conor Bracken, Pat McCarthy, Suzanne Connolly 4.5
(82 competitors)

1989 Kilian Hynes

21st Mulcahy Memorial
28-31 December 1988

1. Kilian Hynes 5.5/6
2=4. Eric McMahon, Mel Kennedy, Conor Bracken 5.0
5=9. David Dunne, Philip Short, S. Brady, M. Crichton, E. O’Reilly 4.5
(87 competitors)

1990 Mephisto Almeria
Trophy awarded to Conor O’Shaughnessy and Mel Kennedy

22nd Mulcahy Memorial
28-31 December 1989

1. Mephisto Almeria (computer) 5.5/6
2=Conor O’Shaughnessy, Mel Kennedy 5.0
4=8. J. Ryan, M. O’Brien, T. Love, K. James, C. Daly 4.5
(75 competitors)

1991 Philip Short

23rd Mulcahy Memorial
28-31 December 1990

1. Philip Short 5.5/6
2=5. Kilian Hynes, Stephen Brady, Mel Kennedy, Kevin James 5.0
6=7. Daire McMahon, Joe Hayes 4.5
8=14. Gerard McDonnell, Conor O’Shaughnessy, James McCarthy, Paul O’Donovan, Kieran Moynihan, Brendan Lyons, Tom Myers 4.0

1992 Mel Kennedy

24th Mulcahy Memorial
28-31 December 1991

1=2. Mel Kennedy (winner on tie-break), Stephen Brady 5.0/6
3=7. Colm Daly, Conor O’Shaughnessy, Kevin McHugh, Gerry O’Connell, Joe Ryan 4.5
8=12. Philip Short, Billy Clifford, Willie Rea, Barry Walls, Joe Moroney 4.0

1993 Philip Short

Annual E.N. Mulcahy Memorial
Lee Maltings UCC
31 December-3 January 1993

1. Philip Short 5.5/6
2=3. Eamonn Keogh, Daire McMahon 5.0
4=5. Mel Kennedy, Paul Carey 4.5

1994 Alexander Baburin

26th Mulcahy Memorial
29 December 1993 – 1 January 1994

1=2. Alexander Baburin, Niall Carton 5.5/6
(Baburin won trophy on tie-break)
3. Daire McMahon 5.0
4=8. Philip Short, Marianne Spiel (Germany), Gerry MacElligott, Richard O’Donovan, Martin O’Grady 4.5
9=15. WIM Luminita Radu (Romania), Colm Daly, Kieran Moynihan, Ciaran Quinn, Eddie O’Connor, Paul McSweeney, Bernd Thee 4.0

1995-2002 No tournament

2003 Alex Lopez

12-14 December 2003

1. Alex Lopez 5.5/6
2=3. Tom Healy, Semyon Mkrtchyan 5.0
4=6. Kieran O’ Driscoll, Pat Twomey, David J. Smith 4.0
7=15. Dmitry Mishin, Christy McInerney, Tom O’ Flynn, Dennis J. O’Donoghue, Nick Larter, David Path, Ricky O’ Riordan, Stephen Short, Barry Foran 3.5
16=19. David B. Murray, John Cassidy, Noel Ahern, Philip Foenander 3.0
20=24. Stephen Forde, Maurice O’ Donoghue, Paul O’ Donovan, Donal Burns, Owen Joyce 2.5
25=28. William D. Gill, John A. Murray, Mark R. Watkins, Anthony Leslie 2.0
29=30. Daniel Libertus, Martin Sharry 1.5
31. Tony O’ Leary 1.0

2004 No tournament

2005 Alex Lopez

14-16 January 2005

1. Alex Lopez 6.0
2=4. IM Rashid Ziatdinov, David Path, Paddy J. McCarthy 5.0
5. WFM Anna Heymann 4.5
6=15. Paul C. Kiely, Stephen Short, Johannes Krumm, Nick Larter, Dara T. Murphy, Pat Twomey, David J. Smith, Dennis J. O’Donoghue, Peter J. Lynch, Barry Foran 4.0
16=20. David O’Kelly, John Cassidy, David O’ Mahony, Stephen H. Forde, William Sherlock 3.5
21=28. Brian Galligan, Luca Mirimin, Raino Soikkeli, Tom O’ Sullivan, David Kiely, Denis O’ Connell, Noel Ahern, Fergus O’ Connor 3.0
29=35. John O’ Connor, Tony O’ Leary, Tom Hickey, Joe Browne, Shane Felle, Donal Burns, Anthony J. Leslie 2.5
36=40. Jack Mc Grath, Jonathan Kiely, Ashley Campion, Walter Fitzgibbon, Richard O’ Mahony 2.0
41=42. Aonghus J. Gannon, William D. Gill 1.5
43=47. Roisin Nic Carthaigh, Philipp Nolte, Ruaidhri Mac Carthaigh, Martin J. Sharry, Muireann Ni Carthaigh 1.0

2006 Gawain Jones and Alex Lopez

Sponsored by Bank of Ireland
Devere Hall, UCC
20- 22 January

ICU website says “UCC student Alex Lopez won the 2006 Mulcahy Cup on a tie-break from English International Master Gawain Jones” whereas Cork CC website gives Gawain Jones & Alex Lopez as joint winners.

1=2. IM Gawain C. Jones, Alex Lopez 5.5
3=5. Semyon Mkrtchyan, Rory Quinn, Paul C. Kiely 4.5
6=15. Stephen Short, Paddy J. Mc Carthy, David Path, Tom Healy, Brian Galligan, Nick Larter, D.J. O’ Donoghue, Thomas Beck, John S. White, Tom O’ Sullivan 4.0
16=20. Martin Crichton, David J. Smith, Pat Twomey, Jamie Flynn, David O’Mahoney 3.5
21=37. John Donoghue, David O’ Kelly, Shane Manning, Gerry Casey, Dean O’Neill, Peter J. Lynch, Paul O’Donovan, John Prince, Hugh Doyle, Raino Soikkeli, Tony O’Leary, Barry Foran, Robert White, Denis O’ Connell, Thomas Sheehan, Andrew O’Donoghue, William Sherlock 2.5
38=46. Jonathan Kiely, Ryan-Rhys Griffiths, Martin Wrzeszcz, Aonghus J. Gannon, Ashley Campion, Tom Hickey, Michael Sheehan, David Kiely, Anne B. Coughlan 2.0
47. Michael Bradley 1.5
48=50. Cian O’Riordan, Anthony J. Leslie, Joe Browne 1.0
51=52. Maurice O’Donoghue, Ruaidhri Mac Carthaigh 0.0

2007 Alex Lopez

19-21 January

1. Alex Lopez 5.5
2. Karl McPhilips 5.0
3=4. Henk De Jonge, Tom Healy 4.5
5=12. Rory Quinn, Alex Martinovic, Orison Carlile, Ricky O Riordain, Brian Galligan, David Path, David Smith, Maurice Coveney 4.0
13=20. Paul Kiely, Mark Orr, Stephen Short, Peter Lynch, John Donoghue, Paul Donovan, Michael O Donnell, Donal Burns 3.5
21=26. D.J. O Donoghue, David O Kelly, David O Mahony, Denis O Connell, Thabani Balang, Tom O Sullivan, 3.0
27=35. Fabio Biancalana, Daniel Cashin, Ronan Fenn, Barry Foran, Tom Hickey, Joe Browne, Michael Bradley, Tony O’Leary, Gearoidin Ui Laighleis 2.5
36=42. Pierre Casubieilh, Jonathan Kiely, Aonghus Gannon, Pat O Mahony, Stephen Forde, Paddy McCarthy, Anne Coughlan 2.0
43=45. Paul Fenn, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Marc Galmoud 1.5
46. Thomas Sheehan 1.0
47. Cian O Riordain 0.5
48. Ronan Leydon 0.0

2008 Alex Lopez

UCC Campus
18-20 January

1. Alex Lopez
2=3. Brian Galligan, Kieran Moynihan

2009 Alex Lopez

Multifunctional Hall, Student Centre, UCC
16-18 January

1=3. FM Alex Lopex, Kieran Moynihan, NM Eamonn Keogh 5.0/6
(Lopez won the cup after a tie break blitz play-off)
4=7. Piotr Leichert, Tom Healy, Henk De Jonge, Kieran O’ Riordan 4.5
8=13. D.J O’Donoghue, Pat Twomey, Paul O’ Donovan, Orison Carlile, Paul Walsh, Stephen Short 4.0
14=20. Gerry McCarthy, David Smith, Ian Hilgendorff, Tom O’ Sullivan, David O’ Kelly, Franscisco Da Silva, Denis O’Connell 3.5
21=29. Barry Foran, Pat Coleman, Donal O’Hallahan, Anne B. Coughlan, Aonghus Gannon, Stephen H. Forde, Tom Hickey, Turlough Kelly, Ashley Campion 3.0
30=35. Mark O’Hallahan, Arunkumar Panneerselvam, Patrick O’Mahoney, Michael Bradley, Daniel Cashin, Craig I.Gill 2.5
36=43. Jonathan Kiely, Peter Doyle, Rory Holohan, Killian Long, Maurice Coveney, Michael Sheehan, Eoin P. Doyle, Adrian McAuliffe 2.0
44. Michael Murphy 1.5
45=48. Donal Sheehan, Angus F. Gill, Dessie Galligan, Kevin Walsh 1.0
49. Bruno Carrasqueira 0.5

2010 Stephen Short and Eamon Keogh

Cork Bridge Club
15-17 January

1=2.Stephen Short, Eamon Keogh 5.0
[ICU website states that Stephen Short was awarded title on tie break but Cork CC website gives joint winners]
3=7. Paul Walsh, Kieran O’Riordan, Paul C. Kiely, Hugh Doyle, Pat Twomey, 4.5
8=13. Sean Nolan, David Path, Alejandro Rivera, Ashley Campion, Tony Dalton, Wim Van Hoogstad 4.0
14=20. Arnaud Aoustin, Piotr Leichert, Henk De Jonge, Andrzej Mrozowski, David J.Smith, Donal O’Hallahan, Barry Foran 3.5
21=31. Denis O’Connell, Gerry McCarthy, Conor E. O’Donnell, Len Hackett, Michael Bradley, Arunkumar Panneerselvam, Daniel Cashin, Jim Harkin, Tom O’Sullivan, Pat Coleman, David O’Kelly 3.0
32=37. Andrew Staunton, Killian Long, Donal Burns, Shay Scott, Maurice J. Coveney, Peter Doyle 2.5
38=45. Keegan O’Mahoney, Anne B.Coughlan, Eamonn Pitts, Mark O’Hallahan, Pat O’Riordan, Craig I Gill, Krzysztof Przestrzelski, John G Connolly 2.0
46=48. Rory Holohan, Angus F.Gill, Jonathan Kiely 1.5
49. Patrick O’Mahoney 1.0
50. Donal Sheehan 0.0

2011 Alex Lopez

Devere Hall, UCC
14-16 January

1. Alex Lopez 6.0
2=5. Tom Healy, Orison Carlile, Kieran Moynihan, Henk De Jonge 4.5
6=10. Stephen Short, Paul C. Kiely, Hugh Doyle, David J. Smith, D. Gerry McCarthy 4.0
11=16. Kieran O’Riordan, Niki Mullins, Killian Long, Denis O’Connell, Len Hackett, Nick J. Larter 3.5
17=23. Wim Van Hoogstad, Michael Bradley, Pat Twomey, Anthony J. Kiely, Mark R. Watkins, Jim Harkin, John G. Connolly 3.0
24=26. Donal O’Hallahan, Maurice J. Coveney, Keegan O’Mahoney 2.5
27=30. David O’Kelly, Angus F. Gill, Mark O’Hallahan, Anne B. Coughlan 2.0
31=32. Tony Dalton, Jonathan Kiely 1.5
33=37. Peter Doyle, Joe Browne, Oliver Roberts, Tom McGrath, Heather Smyth 1.0
38=39. Chris Russell, Craig I. Gill 0.0

2012 Arnaud Aoustin

UCC (Cork Enterprise Centre)
27-29 January

1=2. Arnaud Aoustin, Kieran O’Riordan 5.0
(Aoustin won trophy following a blitz playoff)
3. Henk De Jonge 4.5
4=10. Paul C.Kiely, Stephen Short, Bernd Thee, Jonathan Grimmer, Pat Twomey, Tom Healy, Len Hackett 4.0
11=13. David O’Kelly, D. Gerry McCarthy, Donal O’Hallahan 3.5
14=18. Marco Piazza, Barry Foran, Tom McGrath, Jim Harkin, Daniel Cashin 3.0
19=23. Ronan Magee, Anne B. Coughlan. Peter Doyle, Jonathan Kiely, Maurice J. Coveney 2.5
24=28. Mark O’Hallahan, Niki Mullins, Adrian McAuliffe, Oliver Roberts, Joe Browne 2.0
29 Pat O’Riordan 1.5
30=32. Krzysztof Przestrzelski, Tony Dalton, Desmond Doran 1.0

2013 Alex Lopez

Incorporating the Munster Individual Championship 2012/13
Cork Bridge Club
28-30 December 2012

1=2. Alex Lopez, Ciaran Quinn 5.0
(Lopez won trophy after lightning chess tiebreak)
3. Stephen Short 4.5
4=9. Orison Carlile, David Path, Tom Healy, Bernd Thee, D. Gerry McCarthy, Paddy J. McCarthy 4.0
10=13. Piotr Leichert, John A. Cormican, Denis O’Connell, Keegan O’Mahoney, 3.5
14=20. Len Hackett, Wim Hoogstad, Peter J Lynch, Matthew Gallagher, Desmond Doran, Oliver Roberts, Shay Scott 3.0
21=23. Tom McGrath, Maurice J. Coveney, Krzysztof Przestrzelski 2.5
24=27. Adrian McAuliffe, Angus F. Gill, Joe Browne, Brendan Gallagher 2.0
28=29. Craig I. Gill, Fiona Cormican 1.5
30=31. Elaine Joyce, Declan O’Leary 1.0

2014 Alex Lopez

Incorporating the Munster Individual Championship 2013/14
Gresham Metropole Hotel
27-29 December 2013

1. Alex Lopez 5.5
2. Michael De Verdier 5.0
3=4. John C.Kelly, Henk De Jonge 4.5
5=10. Hugh Doyle, Keegan O’Mahoney, Tom Healy, Mark Halley, Stephen Short, Paul Dowdall 4.0
11=18. Denis O’Connell, Patrick O’Sullivan, Alice O’gorman, Len Hackett, Tom O’gorman, Martin Kelly, Tom McGrath, Shay Scott 3.5
19=23. Sarah Jane Hearne, David O’brien, Peter J. Lynch, Brian O’gorman, Daniel Cashin 3.0
24=28. Stephen Joyce, Desmond Doran, Matthew Gallagher, Peter Doyle, Adam J.Deane 2.5
29=33. Anne B.Coughlan, Maurice J Coveney, William Gallagher, Andrew Williams, Oliver Roberts 2.0
34=35. Anthony Marinos, Brendan Mccarthy 1.5
36=37. Elaine Joyce, Brendan Gallagher 1.0
38. Liam Murray 0.0

2015 Colm Daly

Gresham Metropole Hotel
2-4 January 2015

1. FM Colm Daly 5.5
2. Michael De Verdier 5.0
3=6. Milos Pahor, Hugh Doyle, Piotr Leichert, Paddy J. McCarthy 4.5
7=10. FM Philip Short, Kieran Moynihan, Ciaran Quinn, Kieran O’Riordan 4.0
11=19. Stephen Short, Orison Carlile, Henk De Jonge, Keegan O’Mahoney, D. Gerry McCarthy, Nick J. Larter, Alex Byrne, Joshua Redmond, Gerard Condon 3.5
20=29. John Nicholson, Tom Healy, WCM Sarah Jane Hearne, Paul Dowdall, Sydney Cassidy, David O’Kelly, Tom McGrath, Tom Myers, Mark R. Watkins, Desmond Doran 3.0
30=34. Len Hackett, Denis O’Connell, David Flannery, Alice O’Gorman, Brian O’Gorman 2.5
35=40. David Geaney-O’Brien, Erick McPherson, Gary Loughran, Maurice J. Coveney, Peter Doyle, Oliver Roberts 2.0
41=42. Anne B. Coughlan, Stephen Joyce 1.5
43=44. Tom O’Sullivan, Jonathan Kiely 1.0
45. Andrew Williams 0.0

2016 Colm Daly

Gresham Metropole Hotel
1-3 January

1. FM Colm Daly 5.5
2. Kieran Moynihan 5.0
3=4. Denis J. O’Donoghue, Piotr Leichert 4.5
5=8. Stephen Short, Kevin James, Tom Healy, Len Hackett 4.0
9=14. Hugh Doyle, Eamon Keogh, Martin Crichton, Keegan O’Mahoney, Henk De Jonge, Paul Higgins 3.5
15=19. Paddy J. McCarthy, Pat Twomey, Sydney Cassidy, Maurice J. Coveney, John A. O’Dowd 3.0
20=25. D. Gerry McCarthy, George O’Brien, Joshua Redmond, Tom McGrath, Desmond Doran, Erick McPherson 2.5
26=30. Tom Myers, Barry Foran, Shay Scott, Martin Kelly, Stephen Higgins 2.0
31. John McGann 1.5
32. Adrian McCauliffe 0.5
33. Gerard Condon (1 Round) 0.0

2 responses to “Mulcahy Memorial

  1. Pingback: Mulcahy Memorial 2015 | Irish Chess History

  2. Martin Crichton

    1989 Typo correction – Crichton – not Crighton 🙂

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